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Architecture Interior Design   |  Architectural Interior


Library Interior Design Speaks of Serenity

By William Hopkins

Serenity

The key ingredient in all library interior design is serenity. An area that is conducive to studying and reading should be the first and foremost consideration in library interior design. Comfort is a consideration as well, but not the main emphasis. You don't want to make someone so comfortable that they want to camp out in library and say, take a nap. Because if they are too comfortable, they might be tempted to fall asleep. Unfortunately, sleepy patrons tend to frequent libraries much too often. Bright color schemes and good lighting will help eliminate a few of the more exhausted patrons. In general, however, the focus in Library interior design is on the gentle atmosphere.

Key Elements of Library Design

The first step when designing a library interior will be for the designer to speak to the staff in order to determine the needs of the library. They need to learn if there are any specific elements that must taken into consideration. For instance, is it a study library, a reading library, a children's library or a combination? The designer must become familiar with the needs and wants of the client before launching into a design project. It will be advisable to research the history of the library, the people flow and percentage of ethnic groups.

Library interior designers, as with all designers nowadays, are required to be sure that every design they execute is handicap accessible. Color scheme and layout will be next on the list of elements to be devised. After these have been chosen, then the designer moves to the selection of furniture, fabric, carpet, lighting and accessory manufacturers. The main furniture and accessory components in library interior design will include moveable shelving, reading tables, case goods, computer furniture, book stacks, seating, four-post shelving and book detection systems.

If a certain atmosphere is to be interwoven with the library interior design, then the colors, case goods, carpeting, lighting and some of the furniture will need to be incorporated into the design of the library interior. Of course, if the library design and architecture interior design you are creating is in a home, the overall concept will be totally different than a public or a corporate library. It is immensely easier for any interior designer to be able to design a library interior from scratch with a new and empty structure than to refurbish an existing one. However, a highly-skilled and talented interior designer will find library interior design stimulating no matter how that project comes about.




LED Vs Neon Lighting in Architectural Applications

By George Hier

In the vast world of architectural and display lighting there is an ever growing list of unavoidable and arguable comparisons. However, if you begin climbing this list, near the top you will undoubtedly find yourself dodging punches between the proponents of LED lighting and its well seasoned opponent, Neon lighting. In an effort to provide clarity between these two powerhouses, I have decided to write a series of quick articles listing out the pros, cons, and comparisons.

To kick-start this topic and possibly make a few quick friends (and undoubtedly a few enemies), I would like to jump into three key areas that emphasize the benefits of LED lighting over neon in an architectural or signage application. The comparison will contrast overall versatility, power consumption & efficiency, and maintenance.

Versatility: One of the biggest advantages of LEDs over neon is their flexibility. LED technology offers an array of products suitable in range from the smallest interior illuminated displays to the sometimes giant color changing systems used to light up entire building exteriors. The use of Neon, however, is far more limited due to several factors.

1) Because it emits a great deal more heat than LEDs, neon is not a good solution for small displays where ventilation is limited.

2) When attempting to illuminate a large space or display, a considerable number of neon tubes (or "strokes") will be necessary, while there are LEDs that can be used which are more than ten times as bright as standard neon and thus reduce the amount of units needed.

3) Neon is available in many colors but does not have the ability to change colors. Over the last several years, programmable color changing LEDs have hit the market and are becoming increasingly popular with architects, designers, and builders - presenting design possibilities previously impossible to achieve.

Power Consumption: LED signs use very low power, requiring in some cases only one-tenth the wattage for a similar light output to an equivalent neon sign or light source. This low-power usage also makes LED signs safe and cool to the touch. Low-power usage also means considerable cost savings to operate your LED sign, therefore making the life-cycle cost a very attractive token for consumers. Lighting consumes up to 30 percent of the nation's energy budget, with much of this still being consumed by older and less efficient neon lighting. The use of LED lighting can create brighter light sources with far less consumption of energy. Additionally, LEDs have much longer life spans than their neon equivalents, reducing waste and the need for landfill space when they are no longer in service.

Maintenance: LED signs have far less maintenance than their neon counterparts. LED's are small, extremely bright, individual light nodes that will, in comparison to neon, eliminate gases, glass tubes, and argon or mercury problems. Neon signs will gradually lose the neon inside the glass tubes while LEDs dim at a much slower rate. Neon bulbs are made of narrow glass tubes; their fragility requires signage to be created in bulky protective packaging and often results in broken parts and service calls. LED lights are much smaller and sturdier and can be packaged in far smaller housing.




21st Century High Architecture or Just Hundred Year Old Modernism

By Humane Architecture

The news that the new country house for Rowan Atkinson has been approved by the Oxfordshire Planning Committee despite being recommended for refusal by the Authority's Planning Officers is in danger of raising again the rather tired debate about Modernism versus Classicism in the British countryside. But this is entirely the wrong debate. Dragging out the two old war horses onto the jousting fields of Middle England is displacement activity that takes the attention away from a more pressing, contemporary debate affecting Western culture more generally that could be aired if the war-horses could be put back in their stables for a while.

Atkinson's planning consultant Terence O'Rourke is reported as describing the new proposals as 'a piece of 21st century high architecture'. I am not sure that this is a helpful or totally accurate description of the proposals. It is true that Atkinson's architect for the house, Richard Meier, brought over from the US to do this his first building in the UK, is a respected architect still practicing in the 21st century but the ideas that generate his work are firmly grounded in the early part of the last century. The house could therefore equally be described as a piece of 20th century architecture or as a piece of 'Old Modernism'.

Old Modernism

The ideas that Meier still uses in 2010 were new in the 1920's and 30's when Le Corbusier and other early pioneers of the Modern Movement created an architecture that expressed the spirit of a generation coming out of the first world war. This generation rather naively thought that they could wipe clean the slate of history and build a brave new world. Corb's polemical articulation of that architecture was described in his famous 'Five Points for a New Architecture', first published as a series of articles in the journal he created, entitled 'L'Espirit Nouveau'. These five points set up powerful polemical dichotomies, purposefully disparaging of the old order; the new architecture was to stand elegantly above the ground on slender 'pilotis' (columns) instead of over damp and rat infested basements, the columned structure would create the 'Free plan' and supersede the limitations of heavy load-bearing structures with their awkward corners, lifting the buildings off the ground on pilotis would generate 'free ground' in the city to replace the congested streets. The structural frame would in addition to freeing up the plan create the 'free elevation' and the characteristic horizontal strip windows of the era. Finally, what Corb argued were the useless dark roof spaces associated with traditional pitched roofs could be replaced by the 'roof garden' the fifth of Le Corbusier's five points. The other dominant characteristic of this architecture that strangely does not get mentioned as one of the five points is that it is 'white'. The whiteness enabled this architecture to deny the materiality of the building's surfaces. The surfaces are thus seen as perfect abstractions, conceptual skins which seek to define potentially infinite space. The imperfections of a real material would undermine the quest for a pure statement of absolute space, and therefore material itself had to join those repressed aspects of architecture's reality.

Of course those aspects of architecture's reality that in these five points were condemned by Le Corbusier did not go away. Indeed after the Second World War, Le Corbusier's own architecture took a radical change of direction. By the time he was designing Masions Jaoul in Paris the 1950's the five points had been abandoned. The piloti had disappeared, such that the buildings sat solidly on the ground. The houses were given load bearing structures, thereby limiting the effects of the 'free plan' and 'free elevation' and at the same time the roofs were vaulted thus denying the accessible 'roof garden'. Even the 'whiteness' that denied the buildings materiality had disappeared to be replaced by 'Beton brut', a new and extreme form of architectural materiality that seemed to be called from Le Corbusier's psyche to balance the earlier denial.

The Young Old Guard:

Although we can see that Le Corbusier was able to move on from the extreme polemic of early modernism, the seeds of the architectural language that he had helped to create had been sown and were later to be picked up uncritically by a new generation. Richard Meier was part of that new generation. He emerged as one of a group of young architects working in New York in the 1960's who came to international attention in 1967 following an exhibition of their work at the Museum of Modern Art organized by Arthur Drexler and later published in a book featuring the work of 'The New York Five'; Peter Eisenman, Michael Graves, Charles Gwathmey, John Hejduk and Richard Meier. At that time this group to some extent shared the reductive language of the early modern movement but although some were later to move into new territory, Meier held the line. "If I cannot be Le Corbusier, then I can be Richard Meier", I seem to recall him saying in the early days of his career, and in a recent letter to the Oxfordshire Planning Department he is now clearly claiming the territory as his own, "Whiteness is one of the characteristic qualities of my work....".

It is now seventy or eighty years since the stripped, architectural language of modernism first surfaced on the mainland of Europe. To some extent it has since then been assimilated by contemporary culture. In the commercial world, the steel and glass tower is now the established form for corporate headquarters in our cities but with a few notable exceptions on the domestic front its authority is less evident. In the domestic world modernism has been largely limited to the styling of kitchens or bathroom interiors, it has rarely been allowed onto the High Street. The question that needs to be asked is why the assimilation of modernism has been so partial and why does this reductive architecture continue to provoke such vehement reactions; the planning officer's in their recommendation to refuse planning permission for Rowan Atkinson's house branded the scheme an "ugly space age petrol station." Such inarticulate sentiments are a damning indictment of the British planning system; but if we can forgive them their childlike outbursts it surely indicates, just as with The Prince of Wales' 'Carbuncle' and 'Police Academy' comments, a discomfort with something that they are unable to put accurately into words. Let me see if I can help them.




5 External Climatic Factors That Affect an Interior Design Project

By Shrinivas Vaidya

Dear friends, the emergence of architecture in human society
has taken a wide and distinct role in itself. Starting from
early eras where man used to live in caves, we have seen a
remarkable growth in architecture and allied fields, which
includes landscape and interior design

The recent being the use of computers and "Computer Aided Design"
in architecture, which allows a kind of perfection in design
and execution process of any building and its interiors.

In spite of all the technological advances, the primary function
of any building structure remains the same, protection from
outside environment and natural calamities.

Starting from a place to "protect yourself' from nature, interior
design has become a "status symbol". Today's interior spaces have
a two way channel, first and the obvious one is the function and
second one is aesthetical, which is a little complex one.

It is quite obvious that the interior design of a space is directly
related to the function of the space. This means that two spaces
like a home and an office have two well defined functions, hence
it will reflect in every aspect of the interior design solution.

But apart from the there is one more important factor that
will affect each and every aspect of the final design solution,
and that's the geographical location of the architectural structure.

A hotel building at seashore and the other one at a hill station
will have a completely different sets of problems to deal with.
Lets see in a short way what are the external factors that can
affect an interior design solution

1) Amount of direct sunlight.

Locations on the far northern or southern hemisphere receive less
amount of sunlight than those at the equator. That's why here the
building with more use of plane glass are used. Also artificial
lighting is given much importance.

2) External temperature.

External temperature directly affects the comfort level of internal
spaces. Since external walls act as a "buffer" between internal
and external climate, it is necessary to use the right construction
material for walls. Depending upon the wall material the internal
finishes also have limitations. This is especially true for
structure that face extreme climatic ups and downs, such as
locations in the gulf countries.

Hence selecting materials that can sustain heavy climatic changes
on a daily scale is challenging.

3) Humidity and Rainfall.

Because of the salty nature of air around coastal areas extra care
is taken for building construction materials, which can directly
affect the entire budget of the project.

4)Wind Direction.

Wind direction and wind speed also has direct affect on the interiors.
Heavy winds exert a load on the external walls of the structure,
thus affecting the construction technology.

5)Land Structure and Topography.

Land structure is the nature of land on which the structure stands.
Various types of land structures include rock solid, marshy land,
etc...Topography of land is classified as plane or a site with slope.
If the site of the structure is on a hill slope, extra precautions
are taken to allow the natural flow of rainwater that the structure
might block. Depending upon the quality of land surface the construction
technology will change.

As far as interiors are concerned a well planned structure with
properly thought spaces is a must because internally the spaces
get divided into various floors.

From the above short discussion it can be said that external factors
and environment greatly affect the way structures are built and thus
directly affecting the interior qualities of the structure.

Technological advancements have allowed us to artificially control
the internal environment of a building irrespective of what's
happening outside. But a carefully studied and well planned
architectural space can easily cut the extra cost of air conditioning
and other ventilation services.

I hope this article was informative to everyone.

 


Architectural Interior

 

Great buildings that move the spirit have always been rare. In every case they are unique, poetic, products of the heart.
Arthur Erickson

I am but an architectural composer.
Alexander Jackson Davis

I believe that the way people live can be directed a little by architecture.
Tadao Ando

I don't build in order to have clients. I have clients in order to build.
Ayn Rand

I don't divide architecture, landscape and gardening; to me they are one.
Luis Barragan

I hate vacations. If you can build buildings, why sit on the beach?
Philip Johnson

I have designed the most buildings of any living American architect.
Alexander Jackson Davis

I love building spaces: architecture, furniture, all of it, probably more than fashion. The development procedure is more tactile. It's about space and form and it's something you can share with other people.
Donna Karan

I try to give people a different way of looking at their surroundings. That's art to me.
Maya Lin

 

 
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